Sunday, February 23, 2020
The Diabetes Issue Prevailing in South Asian Indian Women - Term Paper Example Kanaya et. Al (2010) stated that South Asians have a prevalence of diabetes despite their low body weight. This may be because of the difference in the culture that needs to be analyzed. Based on the study conducted by Kanaya et al, it was found that South Asian Indians immigrants are more likely to have diabetes than other US ethnic Groups. The discussion aims at highlighting the health issue prevailing in South Asian Indian women in Los Angeles County in the United States along with developing a health care program to curtail the health issue to an extent. Gielen, Bone (2008) stated that the quality of life is often affected by these health issues along with affecting the social and economic environment in the present as well as in the future. The health problem to be assessed in this particular discussion is diabetes using Precede-Proceed Model as a public health theory The study would be conducted in Los Angeles County by collecting data and information on South Asian Indian wome n suffering from diabetes. ...Wulffson (2011) stated that diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death and the ninth leading cause of premature death in Los Angeles County. The impact of diabetes has been severe on South Asian Indian women compared to any other ethnic group in the United States as per the study conducted by Kanaya et. al (2010). The data reflected that a total of 29% of Asian Indians had diabetes, after the full research and analysis, Indians still had high cases of diabetes compared to whites and Latinos. However, diabetes cases of South Asian Indians were similar to African Americans: Indians [odds ratio (OR), 1.0], whites, 0.29; Latinos (0.34) African Americans (0.77 ;) South Asian Indians have a different lifestyle compared to other ethnic groups in terms of nutrient intakes. Chowdhury and Hitman (2000) stated that the primary cause of diabetes is obesity that increases the weight of the body along with making it defunct up to an extent in terms of performing no rmal usual tasks. Along with this, hypertension and proclivity towards oily and rich food often affect the body mass index of South Asian Indian Women.Ã
Thursday, February 6, 2020
TORT LAW - Essay Example The status of the entrant is quite easily that of a lawful visitor where it is due to an express provision. It has been held by Scrutton LG that Ã¢â¬Ëwhen you invite a person into your house to use the stairs, you do not invite him to slide down the banistersÃ¢â¬â¢. In respect of Florence the situation is quite clear as she was a lawful visitor and the warning clearly did not restrict access to the place. In respect of the common duty of care section 2 of the OLA 1957 provides that Ã¢â¬Ëan occupier of premises owes the same duty, the common duty of care to all his visitors except in so far as he is free to and does extend, restrict, modify, or exclude his duty to any visitor or visitor by agreement or otherwiseÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëthe common duty of care is a duty to take such care in all circumstance of the care is reasonable to see that the visitor will be reasonably safe in using the premises for the purposes for which he is invite or permitted by the occupier to be thereÃ¢â ¬â¢. The duty was described by Lord Denning in Wheat as Ã¢â¬Ësimply a particular instance of the general duty of care which each man owes to his neighbourÃ¢â¬â¢. In respect of Florence it is clear that a common duty of care was owed to her by Eric whereby care should have been taken. The defences that are available in accordance with relevance would be that of section 2(3) whereby there is a defence of contributory negligence. A further defence is that of warning which if duly posted would lead discharge of duty of care or contributory negligence would come into play. In London Graving Dock Co. v. Horton2 it was held by the House of Lords where the significance of warning was recognized by the visitor then the liability of occupier would be absolved. However, s.2(4)(a) stated that all circumstances should be taken into consideration and a warning in itself should not be used to automatically exclude liability(Phipps v. Rochester Corporation)3. Where there is existent an excessi ve amount of danger then additional precautions should also be undertaken by the occupier. In respect of the facts at hand clearly there was a possibility of injury being caused and this should have been thought of by Eric when getting the installation done. Furthermore, in respect of Florence since she was a lawful visitor and a duty of care was owed to her, warning in itself would not constitute to be exclusion of liability of Eric and therefore added precaution should have been taken. In lieu of the facts, Florence can claim for the injuries she has suffered and in respect of the broken glasses she can claim under the contract whereby loss to her has been caused. The only element whereby it can be argued is the fact that Coolit were hired as independent contractors by Eric, however, in that respect all necessary steps should have been undertaken by Eric so as to avoid any harm being caused to anyone, In respect of George a discussion on Occupiers Liability Act 1984 needs to be ma de. The Act deals with people who enter a trespasser. A duty would fall on the Occupier if three requirements as laid down under s.1(3) of the Act are satisfied. Firstly there must be awareness of danger by the occupier or reasonable ground to believe of its existence. Second, knowledge or reasonable grounds to believe that entrant is within vicinity of the danger or that he may enter into vicinity, finally, Ã¢â¬Ëthe risk is one against which in all the circumstances
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Peace Project Essay Writing is more than speech written down. Because of its permanence and its one-way nature, writing is more elaborate and orderly than speech. We can write more carefully and more accurately than we can speak. This is why educating children with writing is very vital so that they will trained to pen down their thoughts clearly. Through WordWeavers project, children are taught to write on a wide variety of topics and explore many different writing styles. They are also encouraged to comment on the writing of other participants and write about the writing process itself, telling about what type of writing they enjoy most, how they get their ideas, what they do when they are having trouble, etc. Although WordWeavers is a simple project, children will be basically trained in the process of writing itself where they will be exposed to weaving their own ideas to words and putting it all in paper. Peace Project (Serenity Quest) http://kidspace. kidlink. org/kidspace/start. cfm? HoldNode=8131HoldNav=614 Currently, as the world changes its order, many nations are still at war. One example of this is what happened in Israel and Lebanon. As reflective, competent, and concerned citizens of the 21st century, we are constantly confronted with questions about war and peace. In answering, citizens will be forced to balance immediate national interests with those of the world as a whole. With the Peace Project, students will be enjoined to comment about issues of violence, race, war and peace. Irrespective of their curriculum and the country, all educators will develop problem solving and communication skills for the children to live successfully in the Digital Age. This project directly focuses on these skills as the children discuss the social problems of violence in the neighborhood. They are also encouraged to develop strategies to cope with violence and to identify methods of inducing peace in their neighborhoods. After this, they will be motivated to read and write for themselves their own realizations about the issues tackled. Peace Project is subtle initial step for children to spark peace within their surrounding and this will make them realize that how better would the world become if everyone will try to respect and understand each other. e-Pals Safe Browser http://safebrowser. epals. com/en/ As the Internet becomes more and more becoming a vital source of information, it is essential that children learn to use it. However, dangers about pornography and inappropriate information could be derived from it. This is why the ePALS Classroom Exchange, Inc. , a school-safe email and eMentoring technology for K-12, has come up unique child-safe web browser project to surf safe and educational websites only. The ePALS Safe Browser allows parents and teachers to pre-determine the websites that their child or students are allowed to visit, creating a fully contained and protected environment. The ePALS Safe Browser offers a level of protection and does not allow linkage to outside websites: Parents and school administrators create a totally safe and controlled online environment. This project is helpful so that children would be able to experience how to use the Internet. They would be able to read only useful and helpful information that will target to increase their knowledge. Square of Life http://www. k12science. org/curriculum/squareproj/index. htm Learning about the environment is helpful for children to understand the concepts about conservation and preservation of nature. One exemplary project is called the Square of Life: Studies in Local and Global Environments Project. This is an Internet-based collaborative project in which students will investigate their local environment and share that information with other students from around the country and the world. In this project, the participants will identify living and non-living things in their school yards, share their findings with other participating classes, look for similarities and differences in the reported data and prepare a their own final report or presentation based on their findings. The fun part of this project will be the field trips where children will be able to explore biology and nature with their own eyes. The experience derived will be the basis for their thoughts and discussions.
Monday, January 20, 2020
A year has past and now we stand on the brink of returning to a world where we are surrounded by the paradox of everything, and yet nothing being the same. Ã In days we will reluctantly give our hugs and, fighting the tears, say goodbye to people who were once just names on a sheet of paper to return to people that we hugged and fought tears to say goodbye to before we ever left. We will leave our best friends to return to our best friends. Ã We will go back to the places we came from and go back to the same things we did last summer and every summer before that. We will come into town on the same familiar road, and even though it has been months, it will seem like only yesterday. As you walk into your old bedroom, every emotion will pass through you as you reflect on the way your life has changed and the person you have become. You suddenly realize that the things that were most important to you a year ago don't seem to matter so much anymore, and the things you hold highest now, no one at home will completely understand. Ã The memories and the stories from school won't mean anything to anyone at home and yet you resent them for that, that they can't share that happiness with you. Ã Who will you call first? What will you do your first weekend home with your friends? How long before you actually start missing people barging in without calling or knocking? Who will get pizza at three in the morning with you now? How long until you adjust to sleeping alone in a room again? Ã Then you start to realize how much things have changed, and you realize the hardest part of college is balancing the two completely different worlds you now live in, trying desperately to hold on to everything all the while trying to figure out what you have to leave behind. In the matter of one day's traveling time, we will leave our world of living next door to our best friends, walking across campus to eat, instant messenger, 8:00am classes, and the perpetual procrastination to a world that will seem foreign to us despite the fact that we lived in it for eighteen years. Ã But it is different now.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
The movie Ã¢â¬ËThe waveÃ¢â¬â¢ is based on a true story that occurred at Cubberely High School, Palo Alto, California. The point of the wave was to experiment and to demonstrate how a typical democratic society can be Ã¢â¬ËfascismÃ¢â¬â¢. This experiment was performed by Ron Jones; his stage name in the movie was Mr Wegner. Both men were well-known as history teachers and this experiment was introduced as a trial in April 1967 and went horribly wrong. As he failed to get his point across in class, he decided to try an experiment. This experiment began by starting the group called Ã¢â¬ËThe Third WaveÃ¢â¬â¢ in his history class; he told the students that the whole point of it was to remove democracy. Ron Jones tried explaining why the Jews were lead to their death; these deaths were committed by the Germans/Nazi (holocaust). Ron JonesÃ¢â¬â¢s main point that he appointed was Ã¢â¬Å"Strength through discipline, strength through community, strength through action, strength through prideÃ¢â¬ . The students soon realised that Democracy puts stress on individuality, which later made these students more interested to remove it from their group Ã¢â¬ËThe Third WaveÃ¢â¬â¢. On the first day of the experiment the group was just going through some ground rules and having discussion. The experiment only intended on being a one day thing but the students were drawn in and wanted to make this over a week. The second day was going over discipline, and this is when the name Ã¢â¬ËThe Third WaveÃ¢â¬â¢ came into it. The name Ã¢â¬Å"The Third WaveÃ¢â¬ , mis-stating the mythical belief that the third in a series of ocean waves is last and largest (which comes from a traditional sailors' saying that the ninth wave is the largest, as recited in Tennyson's The Coming of Arthur). They ended the day by inventing a salute, which was to resemble the topic of the Nazi regime, and how to obey the leader and his commands. To show respect to the Ã¢â¬ËleaderÃ¢â¬â¢ the students had to stand if a question was raised. By the third day more students were moving to Ron Jones class, the class expanded from 30 students to 43. The students were improving on their academic skills and their attitude towards school. The students became attached to the group Ã¢â¬ËThe third WaveÃ¢â¬â¢ when they were given a members card and all got a task given to complete. The students felt like they belonged to something, many for the first time in their lives. By the end of the day Ã¢â¬ËThe Third waveÃ¢â¬â¢ had over 200 members. Ron Jones was amazed by the commitment and motivation from the students. The students started taking the experiment seriously and students started reporting others when rules were being broken, By Thursday Ron Jones had decided to stop the movement due to it slipping out of his control. The students became so attached; emotionally and physically, this became an issue. Ron Jones announced to the group that the movement was a part of a nationwide movement, and that on the following day a selected member of the wave would announce publicly the existence of Ã¢â¬ËThe Third WaveÃ¢â¬â¢. Ron jones made it clear to all students, that the attendance of the meeting held the next day was compulsory. In the meeting that was held on the Friday, Ron Jones announced to Ã¢â¬ËThe Third WaveÃ¢â¬â¢ that they had actually taken part in a fascism group without even knowing. He explained to them, how easy it is to turn a democracy society into fascism without the students even being aware of their actions. He then followed by showing a movie about the Nazi regime, the students then realised that the groupsÃ¢â¬â¢ attitude was a lot like the NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude and that Democracy is extremely important. In the movie and books it suggests that Ron Jones was arrested but in fact he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t, he was just fired from the job 2 years later. Ron Jones didnÃ¢â¬â¢t expect the experiment to get so out of hand. The story line of Ã¢â¬ËThe Third WaveÃ¢â¬â¢ caught the eye of many film writers and authors; later on it became a much more dramatic storyline.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
DardeauÃ¢â¬â¢s death left Marie Tasset widowed at 22 with four children under the age of five. She went on to marry widower Eugene Pierre Dalmace Fields in June 1864. By March 1863, Union forces had taken control of the sugar-planting region and reported that all the slaves had come within their lines. Fellow sugar planter Andrew McCollam reported that he had only a few hands left and he doubted he would be able to do more than manage the seed cane. Viguerie, along with hundreds of Louisiana soldiers, including William A. Bisland of Terrebonne, surrendered on May 26, 1865 in New Orleans. Viguerie was paroled to New Iberia, Louisiana on June 6, 1865. He was released shortly after. Louisiana was the only region deep within the Confederacy, where Union authorities implemented experimental Reconstruction policies during the Civil War. Louisiana responded to President Abraham Lincoln s plan to readmit southern states into the Union by selecting delegates to write a new constitution. The Constitution of 1864 abolished slavery and disposed of Louisiana s old order of rule by planters and merchants, although it did not give African Americans voting power. It was the first state charter to incorporate Lincoln s conciliatory approach and was the leading test case for postwar policy. Lincoln s Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 did not apply to Union-held territory. Thus, slavery continued in the thirteen Louisiana parishes under Union control. After much debate, delegates to the
Friday, December 27, 2019
Sample details Pages: 12 Words: 3552 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/09/14 Category Advertising Essay Did you like this example? DAVID JONES 8th October 09 Strategic Recommendations Report 08 Fall Executive Summary The Australian retail industry is experiencing significant changes in both macro and industry environments. Companies are required to improve customer service quality to retain customers as rivalry for customers is increasing due to the rising amount of online retailers. To meet this challenge, David Jones should expand into online retailing. Building customer loyalty will determine the viability of the transformation into a successful e-commerce company. Additionally, identification of stakeholders and their requirements are crucial in major organisational changes. To respond to changes in the external environment, David Jones should scale back on capital expenditure on its existing business model and invest in technology to build a cutting-edge e-commerce platform. Improving the efficiency of existing operations would secure the financial position of David Jones, while resources are devoted to the new business model. Employee empowerment and establishing customer loyalty levels would realise higher customer service and build loyalty for current and future operations. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "David Jones" essay for you Create order These organisational changes would not only result in improved shareholder value, but also meet demands from different stakeholder groups. Table of content 1. INTRODUCTION3 2. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS3 2. 1. Macro Environment3 2. 2. Industry Environment4 2. 3. Internal Analysis and Strategy4 3. STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS5 3. 1. Primary Stakeholders5 3. 2. Secondary Stakeholders6 3. 3. Social and Institutional Pressures and Trends7 4. STRATEGIC RECOMMENDATIONS7 4. 1. Development of Future Operations7 4. 2. Improvements in Existing Operations8 5. ORGANISATIONAL IMPACT10 5. 1. E-commerce platform10 5. 2. Customer loyalty programs10 5. 3. Employee Empowerment11 6. CONCLUSION11 7. REFERENCE LIST1 1. INTRODUCTION On behalf of Li Partners consulting firm, we are pleased to present our strategic recommendations report. This reportÃ¢â¬â¢s primary task is to recommend strategic and organisational changes to deliver growth in shareholder value. To support these recommendations, this report incorporates broad external environment and internal capabilities analysis on David Jones. David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ stakeholders are also identified, as is the impact the recommendations have on them. Additionally, a Balanced Scorecard is constructed to illustrate the effect that our strategic recommendations will have on all stakeholders and future company performance. 2. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS 2. 1. Macro Environment Political/Legal| Deregulation in retail industrys trading hours| Economic| Declining consumer spending due to global economic downturn| Ã | Increasing energy expenditure due to global warming| Socio-Cultural| Increasing demand for better work and social-life balance| Technological| Improvements in IT-Technology | Demographic| Declining work-force due to aging demographics| Ã | Increasing immigration| Global| Improved international standing of Asian capitals| Ã | Global protectionism| Table 2. PEST-Analysis The deregulation of the retail industryÃ¢â¬â¢s opening hours is expected to have a positive impact on David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ sales (White 2008). On the other hand, declining consumer spending will negatively affect consumer behaviour (Annual report 2008), although governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s stimulus packages are expected to limit this impact (SRJ 2009). Additionally, as people are finding it harder to balance work and family commitments (Australian Government 2009), customer stream is expected to decrease. Global warming is expected to have a negative impact on David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance as energy costs are rising (Annual report 2008). Technological improvements in information technology are expected to increase efficiency through the use of Internet and web-enabled processes (Laudon and Laudon 2006). Lower fertility is reducing the supply of workforce. Aging demographics will require David Jones to design its facilities according to this new customer base. Additionally, the increasing overseas migration from Asia (Australian government 2009) will have an impact on consumer behaviour. These demographic groups have higher spending patterns and higher preference for branded products, and hence potentially increasing the market for high quality products (Australian Government 2009). Australia lacks an international image as a major tourism shopping destination, as compared to Hong Kong or Singapore, that have successfully positioned themselves as central shopping and retail destinations in Asia (Folk 2009). Additionally, the geographic distance from Asia reduces tourism shopping in Australia. The rise in protectionism around the world may negatively impact David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance due to increasing prices (Kemp 2009). 2. 2. Industry Environment Industry characteristics| High capital requirement and specialised assets| Economies of scale| Brand awareness| Low switching cost| High amount of competitors| Lack of strategic competitors| High amount of suppliers| Emerging e-commerce sites| Table 2. Industry characteristics High capital requirements, specialised assets and economies of scale of existing retailers reduce the incentive of competitors to enter the market. Similarly, the customer loyalty and brand awareness of David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ differentiated product category reduces the incentive to penetrate the Australian retail market (Ondix 2009). While the low switching costs enable consumers to take advantage of the alternatives available to them, the lack of strategic equivalents to David Jones limit consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s options. The vast amount of suppliers reduces the threat of forward integration. Suppliers also want to be associated with David Jones due to its strong brand position in Australia. The threat of existing competition for David Jones is marginal due to the lack of strategic competitors. On the other hand, the rising online apparel stores (Rumble 2000) have the potential of removing all previous entry barriers, resulting in increased competition. 2. 3. Internal Analysis and Strategy David Jones follows a differentiation strategy providing well-known high quality products at high volume. It uses centrally located department stores to reach a large number of consumers. The strategic initiatives at place aim to increase shareholder value through new department stores and refurbishment of existing ones and stringent capital expenditure measures. David Jones has operated under the same brand for 170 years (Annual report 2008) and is thus well recognised in the Australian market. Because its brand signals quality, it has been able to differentiate its business strategy from competitors. Secondly, the long-term relationships with well-known suppliers have secured access to high quality products and exclusive supply deals with premium brands (Interbrand 2009). Thirdly, the successful consumer demand estimation has supported its financial position. Finally, David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ borrowing capacity enables it to utilise emerging investment opportunities. The first three capabilities are a result of its industry experience and are expected to deliver competitive advantage in the future. Therefore, they are sources of sustainable competitive advantage. Borrowing capacity is a result of its current financial position and therefore does not reflect future competitive advantage. Table 3. David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ core competencies and sources of sustainable competitive advantage Inefficient customer data collection and low customer service capabilities are David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ weaknesses. Even though it has a data collection system at place via American Express card (David Jones 2009), the cardÃ¢â¬â¢s incentives seem distant. Because the incentive scheme is based on earning future customer points (David Jones 2009), customers may not feel inclined to participate. Thus David Jones is unable to maximise its data collection. Data collection is crucial in pursuing high customer retention. Additionally, the lack of employees in department stores prevents high customer service. 3. STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS 3. 1. Primary Stakeholders Primary stakeholders are groups whose participation is vital to the existence of the David Jones (Clarkson, 1995). These stakeholders are shareholders, employees and management, customers and suppliers. Through annual shareholder meetings and the composition of Board of Directors, shareholders pursue policies that aim to deliver increased shareholder value. David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ customers are quality and brand-oriented people, who desire convenience and location. To meet its customersÃ¢â¬â¢ requirements, David Jones offers a high quality product range and updates its product categories on a yearly basis. To offer convenience, David Jones department stores are centrally located (Annual report 2008). Legislation determines employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ safety and health issues and compensation policies. Additionally, employees expect equal treatment on job enhancement opportunities. Successful execution of employee policies will secure its work force in the future. David Jones aims to align managersÃ¢â¬â¢ interest with shareholder value creation by linking directorÃ¢â¬â¢s compensation with company performance. In 2008, David Jones reported that eight of its Directors had significant share ownership (Annual report 2008). For suppliers, long-term relationships with David Jones offer stable business transactions and positive public image through David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ high standing in the retail industry. David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ decision to open new stores, represents a direct possibility for suppliers to increase demand for their products. Also, David Jones strong financial position provides financial stability for suppliers. 3. 2. Secondary Stakeholders Secondary stakeholders are groups that are influenced by the decisions of David Jones, but are not in direct transactions with it and thus not essential to its survival (Clarkson 1995). These stakeholders include the federal and local government, Australian Securities Exchange and non-governmental organisations (NGOS). The Federal Government is interested in increasing the collected tax revenue. Employment levels are a key concern for local government as they determine the prosperity of the area. For example, David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ strategic plans to open new stores (Annual report 2008) are expected to generate improved taxable revenue and offer new employment opportunities across different communities. David Jones is listed on the Australian Securities Exchange (ASX 2009), which places high disclosure requirements on listed companies. If David Jones does not meet these requirements, it might face financial sanctions and delisting. Delisting, in particular, would negatively impact companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance, as it would limit financing sources and adversely impact David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ image. NGOS monitors David Jones over its labour and environmental practices and can therefore exert negative publicity over David Jones. To address these concerns, David Jones has implemented a code of ethics and conducts over its labour policies and established environmentally friendly measures such as recycling, lighting, and air-conditioning upgrades. Additionally, David Jones provides financial support for medical projects on womenÃ¢â¬â¢ and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s health initiatives (Annual report 2008). 3. 3. Social and Institutional Pressures and Trends Waddock et al. (2002) state that social and institutional pressures are sourced from rankings, global principles and standards, and pubic reporting in economic, social and environmental performance. Rankings reflect companies standing against selected peer groups, and thus can be a great source of competitive advantage. In 2009, David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ brand was ranked the 12th most valuable Australian brand and valued at 760 million AUD (Interbrand 2009). Because brand rankings have an influence on investor and customer behaviour, David Jones must strive to keep or improve its standings. Labour practices are a major source of social pressure for David Jones, as it needs to prove to the public that its suppliers meet global standards. Therefore, quality and environmental standards such as ISO reflect ethical management behaviour and thus potentially act as a competitive advantage against companies that have not implemented similar standards. David Jones discloses its social and environmental contribution in its annual report (Annual report 2008). In 2005, David Jones received B- standing on its corporate social responsibility, behind many Australian listed companies (RepuTex 2005). Because investors compare David Jones to other domestically and globally listed companies, their corporate social reports serves as a benchmark for David Jones reporting. . STRATEGIC RECOMMENDATIONS 4. 1. Development of Future Operations The technological developments in information technology have enabled e-commerce platforms, resulting in increased competition from online retailers. Due to the growing demand for better social and work life balance, customers are inclined to spend time in department stores. Therefore, online retailers provide a logical solution and will eventually marginalise the need for a traditional department store chains. Additionally, e-commerce platforms enable Australian online retailers to attract global customers as it reduces the geographic distance between markets and expands the target market. Schefter and Reichheld (2000) found that the higher costs of acquiring customers in e-commerce are offset by even faster accelerating future profits. This is due to greater loyalty that can be achieved through the Internet than in the physical world. Because competing e-commerce providers need to market themselves to customers to build trust, David Jones can avoid these costs due to its strong reputation in the retail industry. Schefter and Reichheld (2000) also found that brand loyalty reduces customersÃ¢â¬â¢ desire to change online retail sites. Hence, David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ brand gives a clear advantage against its existing and potential competitors in establishing an e-commerce presence. Therefore, we recommend a strategic shift from department store expansion to e-commerce platform. This would require scaling back investments in department stores and directing the cash flow to the development of an e-commerce platform and necessary organisational skills. The e-commerce platform would also offer efficient customer data collection, as every customer would need to sign up as member. By personalising the customer interface, David Jones would be able to offer individual customer service on a large scale. Additionally, an e-commerce platform would offer a more cost efficient solution for product range expansion and direct marketing. These factors would lead to both higher customer satisfaction, retention of existing customers, and less expensive costs of attracting of new customers. This would increase David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ EBIT margin and growth rate. Because e-commerce will scale down capital expenditure on tangible assets, it will reduce tied up capital as well. Thus, we expect e-commerce platform to have a positive impact on future shareholder value. 4. 2. Improvements in Existing Operations Even though our strategic emphasis is to transform David Jones into an online retailer, the efficiency of David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ current operations is crucial in generating cash flow to support the development of an e-commerce platform. Additionally, the more successful David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ current operations are, the higher the attraction of customers for its future e-commerce platform. Therefore, the following recommendations aim improving David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ current operations. The David Jones American Express card is a strategic initiative aimed at increasing customer data collection (Annual report 2008). Even though this initiative will result in an increase in shareholder value through reduction in tied-up net working capital, it fails to capture all the value enhancement opportunities. The lack of customer loyalty classes and visibility between classes are the main reason for the inefficient use of David Jones AMEX card (Loveman 2003). Therefore, we recommend that David Jones establish three classes of customer loyalty cards: Basic, Silver and Gold. The aim is to make customer loyalty levels as visible as possible and to increase incentives (e. g. discounts) as customer reach a higher level. The establishment of customer loyalty programs will lead to higher customer spending per customer and a reduction in marketing expenses through increased customer retention (Loveman 2003). The reliance on department stores prevents David Jones from addressing all customers individually. Because David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ customers are looking for high quality and well-known brands, they expect high customer service. Employees, especially sales personnel, are in the best position to identify the key bottlenecks in David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ customer service and processes. Therefore, we recommend that David Jones empower its employees to improve processes. This recommendation is in line with Total Quality Management principles and its focus on improving customer satisfaction. The adoption of TQM has improved companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ competitive position (Reed, Lemak and Nero 2000) and the employee empowerment and high customer service have contributed to increased company performance (Samson and Terziovski 1999; Ugboro and Obeng 2000). Linking David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ employee compensation to process improvement would amplify this effect. Hence, we believe that by involving employees in the decision-making process, David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ will improve its customer service capabilities, thus enable it to modify its processes promptly based on customer feedback. Therefore, both customer loyalty classes and employee empowerment will lead to higher customer satisfaction of its existing operations. The improved customer satisfaction would result in higher growth rates and EBIT margin and eventually increased current shareholder value. Additionally, the improved customer satisfaction would increase customer loyalty and enable David Jones to attract more customers for its future e-commerce platform. Therefore, they would have a positive impact on future cash flows as well. 5. ORGANISATIONAL IMPACT 5. 1. E-commerce platform The implementation of an e-commerce platform would have a positive impact on all stakeholder classes. Customers would benefit from improved convenience and lower prices and suppliers from the increased volume and product presence in new markets. For both employees and managers, e-commerce represents an opportunity for re-education. Shareholders and also executives would gain from the improved profitability and thus improved share price. Governments would benefit from the improved profitability through increased tax revenue. The e-commerce platform is more environmentally friendly than department stores and thus would support NGOS demand for environmentally sustainable solutions. The enhanced profitability, organisational change and better environmental impact, would be reflected in David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ rankings. The implementation of an e-commerce platform would result in organisational changes, as e-commerce reduces the need for a department store network and hence manual labour. To reduce the internal resistance from its employees, every employee would be given the opportunity to re-educate to meet the new organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s skill requirements. Additionally, the change towards e-business would result in new working capital management issues at supplier level. Because online retailers rely on suppliers to hold inventory, the inventory risk would shift from David Jones to suppliers. To reduce the risk of suppliersÃ¢â¬â¢ obsolete inventory, suppliers would be given access to David JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ information systems to better coordinate their manufacturing processes. 5. 2. Customer loyalty programs The customer loyalty programs would have a significant impact on customers and only a limited impact on other stakeholders. The enhanced data collection would enable tailoring of processes to deliver higher customer service for customer groups. The enhanced data collection would also offer suppliers the possibility of targeting their products to specific market Ã¢â¬Ëopinion leadersÃ¢â¬â¢, who have a significant impact on market behaviour (Business Dictionary 2009). Employees and managers would gain from their improved personal reputation associated with working for a successful company. Similar to e-commerce platform, the implementation of customer loyalty programs would result in a better performance and thus increase in tax revenue for the government. The enhanced customer satisfaction would be reflected in rankings as well. Customer privacy and fear of deteriorating basic customer service levels are key issues that need to be addressed. Customers may feel disinclined to take part in customer loyalty programs, if it would result in a decline in customer privacy. Therefore, every customer would have the right to choose in the application how much personal information may be used and to what extent. Additionally, basic level customers may fear a deteriorating customer service level as more resources might be directed to higher customer levels. Hence, David Jones should implement standard customer service levels to prevent this from occurring. If these standards were not met, customers would receive compensation on their purchases. 5. 3. Employee Empowerment The empowerment of employees would have material impact on employee satisfaction and profitability. Because employees would be responsible for designing processes and rewarded based on the outcome, it would result in more motivated employees and thus higher customer service. This would have a similar indirect effect on shareholder value, tax revenue and rankings, as the two previous recommendations. Because the employee empowerment would result in a leaner organisation, managers might feel that their power is diminishing and thus oppose it. Therefore, to align organisational change with management interests, managersÃ¢â¬â¢ compensation should be tied to the successful implementation of employee empowerment. Additionally, a formal organisational architecture should be replaced with vertical teams comprising members from every part of the organisation. These vertical teams would enable the sales personnel to voice concern and give suggestions on different topics. Managers would lead these teams and thus employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ personal growth would be directly reflected in their performance. 6. CONCLUSION In this section, a Balanced Scorecard is constructed to illustrate how the strategic recommendations impact shareholder value. The balanced scorecard includes a strategic map, objectives, measures and targets and is presented in the next page. Growth Lower capital EBIT Share Holder Value | -Achieve profitability-Achieve growth-Less physical departmental stores| -EBIT growth-Increase in revenue-Decrease in PP| -25% CAGR in EBIT-6. % growth in revenue-5% increase in CAGR in fixed asset turnover| Broader Customer Base Higher customer service Broader choice Convenience Lower Price Higher Customer Retention | -Personalization of customer interface-Lower total cost for customer-Higher customer retention-Higher customer base| -Clicks per interface-Delivery cost per total transaction-Frequency of customer purchase-Non-member transaction to total transacti on| -One every visit-5 % reduction per month-Basic: 1 month, Silver: 2 weeks, Gold: 1 week-5% reduction per transaction| Virtual Organizationrice Data Collection System Optimized Product Placement -Get all products on site-Get every customer sign as a member-Optimized shelf placement| -Availability of product item online-Number of new member-Number of inquiry per customer| -100%-5% increase in new customer-0 %| David Jones E-commerce Siterice Customer Loyalty Card Lean Organizationrice | -Developing of necessary skills-Build IT support system-Standardization and reallocation of customer-Alignment with strategy| -Employee participation in workshop-Information system availability-Benchmark criteria in place-Organizational change in place| -100%-100%-100% in place-100% in place| FINANCIAL BALANCED SCORECARDBALANCEbBql EMPLOYEE EMPOWERMENT TARGET OBJECTIVES INTERNAL MEASURE LEARNING CUSTOMER DEVELOPING E-COMMERCE STRATEGY MAP CUSTOMER LOYALTY CARDS 7. 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